Ketamine

The Psychedelic Medical Renaissance Begins Here!

KETAMINE

What is Ketamine Therapy?

Ketamine therapy is used as an aid in the treatment of a wide range of affective disorders, including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and even suicidal ideation.

It is a combination of psychotherapy and ketamine — a synthetic compound used historically and primarily to induce and maintain anesthesia or as a recreational drug for its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects. Most recently, however, ketamine has come to the fore as a highly effective agent against treatment-resistant depression and other mental ailments such as those listed above.[1]

Further research is yet required to create a more comprehensive knowledge database about ketamine. However, we know it attacks NMDA receptors in the brain to induce dissociative amnesia, which places patients into a trance-like state, thus providing them with relief from pain and sedation.[2]

Here at Gateway Sciences, we choose only the most optimal treatment methods for our patients. New research into the innovative applications is undertaken constantly by our team of expert medical practitioners to find more permanent solutions to mental health concerns and destigmatize the use of psychedelics in medical therapy.

Applications of Ketamine Therapy

Ketamine therapy is an effective treatment method not only for mental ailments but also such physical complaints and conditions as eating disorders, migraines, and chronic pain.

Mood Stabilization Mental Health Medication Pain Mitigation
Helps treat depression and mitigate the worst effects of mood swings. Effective against treatment-resistant depression, anxiety, OCD, ADHD, and PTSD. Helps alleviate pain in the body, relaxes the muscles, and reduces the suffering caused by chronic bodily pain.
[3] [4] [5]
Migraine Treatment Eating Disorders and Physical Wellness Suicidal Ideation
Helps mitigate the pain from headaches and provides comfort against migraines. Helps overcome eating disorders, making it easier to maintain optimal health. Reduces the risk of suicide significantly by working as an antidote for depressive and traumatic thoughts.
[6] [7] [8]

Benefits vs Risks

Ketamine therapy has many benefits and potential applications but the use of the compound, especially when consumed without proper guidance, has specific risks associated with it too.

Benefits

  • Helps treat anxiety and depression by repairing damage in the brain.
  • Helps patients overcome PTSD and OCD by calming them and allowing them to self-reflect and control their impulses.
  • Helps heal physical pain and migraines.
  • Helps overcome treatment-resistant illnesses.
  • Has far fewer adverse side effects when compared to conventional antidepressants.
  • Has a high success rate, with about 70% to 80% of patients reporting positive results.

Risks

  • May increase the risk of addiction in rare cases.
  • Excessive use may lead to vomiting, nausea, a high rate of heartbeat, and insomnia.
  • Irresponsible use may lead to long-term problems, such as ulcers and kidney problems.
  • Potential long-term side effects such as kidney problems and ulcers can occur if irresponsibly used.

[9]

A Brief History of Ketamine

1950s
Phencyclidine is created by Parke Davis Company in Detroit, Michigan, and is initially used as an anesthetic.

1964
Chemists extract ketamine from phencyclidine by combining ketone and amine. The new compound is cleared for human trials.

1966
Further tests reveal it works as a remarkably effective anesthetic if used in controlled dosages.

1969
Ketamine is made available by prescription as ‘Ketalar’.

1970s
It is used as a battlefield anesthetic for American soldiers during the Vietnam war. However, additional side effects, including hallucination, are discovered, and ketamine falls out of favor with the general public.

1980s
Researchers identify ketamine’s effects on glutamate and synaptic plasticity and its potential in treating mental conditions and disorders.

1999
The US Controlled Substances Act outlaws ketamine and halts all research into it.

2000s
Ketamine is labeled an effective antihyperalgesic drug.

2010s-2020s
Research continues into ketamine’s potential to be a ‘miracle cure’ for treatment-resistant depression and other affective disorders.

Modern Day Research on Ketamine Therapy

Ketamine has long been used as an anesthetic. On the other hand, current research is trying to discern its potential as a drug that helps cure, or at least mitigate, a wide range of affective disorders—particularly treatment-resistant depression.[9]

The primary focus of most studies remains on the effects of the compound on glutamate—a neurotransmitter in the brain which fires neurons and regulates brain circuits. In high doses, it blocks the glutamates and effectively works as an anesthetic.[10]

However, it has been found that glutamate receptors can be augmented whereby new neural pathways are established. Patients feel considerably better within just a few hours by administering small doses of ketamine.[11]

In 2017, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Council of Research Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments published a statement detailing the best practices to adhere to when administering ketamine to patients to maintain their safety.[12]

Prevalence and Acceptance

Despite the initial success enjoyed by ketamine as an anesthetic for battlefield injuries, the compound was outlawed by the United States in the 1990s and quickly faded into near obscurity.[13] Nevertheless, the recent resurgence of interest in psychedelic medicine has made it popular once again.

Ketamine therapy has proven remarkably effective as a treatment aid for such affective disorders as treatment-resistant depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, OCD, ADHD, and PTSD. It helps with physical conditions such as migraines and eating disorders too, and even aids in the prevention of suicidal thoughts and ideation.[9]
Many pharmaceutical companies are turning away from conventional antidepressants due to their various side effects and instead adopting psychedelic medicine to treat various ailments.[14][15]

Gateway Sciences, too, has invested in the study and research of ketamine, and our team of scientists is hard at work developing new and innovative ways to administer it in a safe and optimal manner.

Effectiveness of Ketamine Therapy

Conventional antidepressant treatments usually lead to relapses and have proven at best to be temporary solutions. Ketamine therapy, on the other hand, takes a different, more effective approach. It attempts to cure mental conditions by repairing damage in the brain by affecting glutamate receptors.[4]

Ketamine therapy sessions are scheduled once or twice per week and conducted in the presence of expert medical practitioners who guide patients through the process. The compound may be ingested through a nasal spray, an edible capsule, or IV infusion [by far the most effective].[16]

Patients experience a heightened sense of self-awareness and dissociative feelings, which help them self-actualize through introspection, and better combat or even conquer their condition. Perhaps most importantly, and unlike most other antidepressant treatments, they do not experience apathy as a side effect.[17]

We, at Gateway Sciences, are at the forefront of ketamine therapy. Our team is committed to helping you conquer the limitations imposed upon you by your condition and help you become the best possible version of yourself.

Where to Begin?

Gateway Sciences are proud to be in the vanguard of medical innovation. For example, Psychedelic medical therapies, although new, have proven they are one of the most effective ways of combating mental as well as physical ailments.

Do not hesitate to call us for advice or consultation HERE

Call Us: 1 (424) 330-0000
Address: Gateway Clinics Santa Monica, 1205 1/2 Montana Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90403

References

  1. Dore J, Turnipseed B, Dwyer S, Turnipseed A, Andries J, Ascani G, Monnette C, Huidekoper A, Strauss N, Wolfson P. Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP): Patient Demographics, Clinical Data and Outcomes in Three Large Practices Administering Ketamine with Psychotherapy. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2019 Apr-Jun;51(2):189-198. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2019.1587556. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30917760.
  2. Kurdi MS, Theerth KA, Deva RS. Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesth Essays Res. 2014 Sep-Dec;8(3):283-90. doi: 10.4103/0259-1162.143110. PMID: 25886322; PMCID: PMC4258981.
  3. Sanacora G, Frye MA, McDonald W, et al. A Consensus Statement on the Use of Ketamine in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(4):399–405. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0080
  4. Park LT, Falodun TB, Zarate CA Jr. Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Mood Disorders. Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2019 Jan;17(1):8-12. doi: 10.1176/appi.focus.20180030. Epub 2019 Jan 7. PMID: 31975953; PMCID: PMC6493154.
  5. Niesters M, Martini C, Dahan A. Ketamine for chronic pain: risks and benefits. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;77(2):357-67. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12094. PMID: 23432384; PMCID: PMC4014022.
  6. Bilhimer MH, Groth ME, Holmes AK. Ketamine for Migraine in the Emergency Department. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2020 Apr/Jun;42(2):96-102. doi: 10.1097/TME.0000000000000296. PMID: 32358422.
  7. Mills IH, Park GR, Manara AR, Merriman RJ. Treatment of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders with intermittent ketamine infusions. QJM. 1998 Jul;91(7):493-503. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/91.7.493. PMID: 9797933.
  8. Witt K, Potts J, Hubers A, Grunebaum MF, Murrough JW, Loo C, Cipriani A, Hawton K. Ketamine for suicidal ideation in adults with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment trials. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2020 Jan;54(1):29-45. doi: 10.1177/0004867419883341. Epub 2019 Nov 15. Erratum in: Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2020 Jul;54(7):766. PMID: 31729893.
  9. Davis K, Browne D (medical reviewer). What are the uses of ketamine? Medical News Today. 2017 October.
  10. Kurdi MS, Theerth KA, Deva RS. Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesth Essays Res. 2014 Sep-Dec;8(3):283-90. doi: 10.4103/0259-1162.143110. PMID: 25886322; PMCID: PMC4258981.
  11. Corriger A, Pickering G. Ketamine and depression: a narrative review. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019 Aug 27;13:3051-3067. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S221437. PMID: 31695324; PMCID: PMC6717708.
  12. Sanacora G, Frye MA, McDonald W, Mathew SJ, Turner MS, Schatzberg AF, Summergrad P, Nemeroff CB; American Psychiatric Association (APA) Council of Research Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments. A Consensus Statement on the Use of Ketamine in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 1;74(4):399-405. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0080. PMID: 28249076.
  13. Lawrence J. The secret life of ketamine. The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2015 March.
  14. Harmantas A. Companies are starting to bet big on psychedelic drugs to treat US mental health epidemic. Proactive Investors. 2020 June.
  15. Carhart-Harris R. Big pharma is about to tune in to the potential of psychedelics. Wired. 2021 January.
  16. Maher, Dermot P MD, MS; Chen, Lucy MD; Mao, Jianren MD, PhD Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain Management: A Promising Therapy in Need of Optimization, Anesthesia & Analgesia: February 2017 – Volume 124 – Issue 2 – p 661-674. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001787
  17. Woods S. “Ketamine’s Role in Spirituality: How One Synthetic Drug Catalyzes a Natural Experience,” SMU Journal of Undergraduate Research. 2021, Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25172/jour.6.1.6